october
2009
pioneer park reserve
FINAL ISSUE 29 OCTOBER 2009
DOCUMENT CONTROL
issue number
revision issue date
revision notes
00
20 February 2009
Preliminary draft issue
01
28 September 2009
Final draft issue
02
29 October 2009
Final issue
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
section
page
0
1.00
introduction
7
0
2.00
interpretation planning
9
02.01
defining interpretation
02.02
what is an interpretation plan?
02.03
philosophical approach
0
3.00
background components
1
1
03.01
documentary background
03.02
personnel background
03.03
statements of significance
0
4.00
site analysis
1
7
04.01
SWOT analysis
04.02
archaeology
04.03
aboriginal interpretation
04.04
other locales
0
5.00
audience profile
2
3
05.01
general
05.02
target audience
05.03
multiple attraction
05.04
repeat visitation
05.05
school and education groups
01
0
6.00
themes and stories
2
7
02
06.01
themes
06.02
stories
0
7.00
interpretation policies
2
9
03
background
0
8.00
interpretation strategies
3
1
components
08.01
vision for pioneer park reserve
08.02
strategies overview
04
08.03
interpretation strategies table
0
9.00
implementation
4
3
09.01
general
05
09.02
consultation
09.03
masterplan
09.04
trees & landscaping
09.05
budget
06
09.06
visitor management
09.07
spare parts puppet theatre
09.08
conservation
07
09.09
BCA + DDA
09.10
evaluation
09.11
further research + archaeology
08
09.12
marketing
09.13
kiosk / cafe
09.14
priorities & programming
09
app A
design drawings
app B
preliminary costing
app C
community consultation
app D
consultant brief
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01.00
INTRODUCTION
01
introduction
Mulloway Studio and Paul Kloeden were engaged by the City of Fremantle to prepare this heritage
interpretation plan for Pioneer Park Reserve.
02
According to the brief:
The current project represents a sequential step in planning for the staged implementation of Phillimore
03
Street Precinct Integrated Masterplan. To date the following studies and plans have been completed:
1.
Phillimore Street Precinct Fremantle Conservation Plan (2003) prepared for the City of Fremantle by
Heritage and Conservation Professionals.
04
2.
Phillimore Street Precinct Masterplan (2004) prepared for the City of Fremantle by
Donaldson + Warn.
05
3.
Phillimore Street Precinct Integrated Masterplan, Fremantle (2006) prepared for the City of
Fremantle by Donaldson + Warn.
4.
Phillimore Street Precinct, Fremantle, Western Australia - Archaeological Conservation Plan
06
prepared for the City of Fremantle by Jack McIlroy and Samantha Bolton (August 2008).
5.
The Excavation of an 1840s cottage complex in Pioneer Park, Fremantle - an addendum to the
Phillimore Street Precinct Archaeological Conservation Plan prepared for the City of Fremantle by
07
Jack McIIroy and Samantha Bolton (December 2008).
08
09
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The brief states that:
The project area is defined by the boundaries of the Pioneer Park Reserve, however it is important that the
plan takes into account the broader context of the area, particularly its relationship to Phillimore Street
Precinct as defined by the masterplan, its functional, cultural and visual links to Victoria Quay, the Railway
Station’s forecourt, Market and Short Streets and the main approaches to the city centre.
The plan should provide recommendations for these areas at all aspects where heritage interpretation of
the reserve is related to and/or forms part of the heritage values or historical links to the broader urban
context.
The prime purpose of the plan is to identify and develop a range of means of communicating ideas and
feelings which help users and visitors to Fremantle enrich their understanding and appreciation of Pioneer
Park as a heritage place. In addition the plan should aim to:
pioneer park
reserve
• Contribute to achieving broader objectives for Phillimore Street Precinct.
• Suggest means of celebrating arrival in the city by a welcoming entry statement in front of the
public transport’s hub associated with Fremantle Railway Station.
• Integrate successfully with the physical, social and cultural context of the reserve.
to city centre
• Consider ‘Fremantle Pioneers’ theme as potentially an additional aspect of enhancing Pioneer
Park’s identity through interpretation and an adoptive use in the future.
• Provide knowledge base and inspiration for the physical upgrade of Pioneer Park.
The plan is to identify, recommend and outline an overall heritage interpretation scheme for the reserve and
to list a range of interpretation means to build on in developing design development plans for the general
upgrade of Pioneer Park in future.
project area_pioneer park reserve
02.00
INTERPRETATION PLANNING
01
02.01
defining interpretation
02
“Interpretation is an interactive communication process, involving the visitor, through which heritage values
interpretation
planning
and cultural significance are revealed, using a variety of techniques in order to enrich the visitor experience
and enhance the enjoyment and understanding of the place” (Murphy, S. 1997:5)
03
02.02
what is an interpretation plan?
“An interpretation plan is a management tool that provides a strategy for transmitting messages about the
04
cultural heritage values of a heritage place to visitors. It identifies the most significant themes and stories
about a place and the media most suited to exploring them.
The plan also provides a framework for managing visitors, providing them with a memorable and enriching
05
experience while also ensuring the heritage values, including significant fabric, of the place are upheld. It
also helps ensure that the interpretive strategies recommended are appropriate to the place.” National Trust
of Australia (WA) Interpretation Planning Guidelines
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07
08
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02.03
philosophical approach
Our approach to interpretation is encapsulated in the philosophical statement of approach we developed in
2005 for the National Trust of Australia (WA).
“The principal aim of interpretation is not instruction, but provocation. The place should be presented as
a space for public discourse and invite the visitor to share the excitement of thinking about the past, the
present and the future. The visitor experience should thus be one of discovery or inspired insight. The local
visitor should experience a degree of self-revelation while those from further afield should enjoy a richer
insight into the place, the State and the country.
Interpretation should aim to present the whole rather than a part. It should resonate with voices that encourage
open-minded consideration of different perspectives. The interpretation should celebrate the significance
of the place by promoting the exploration of knowledge and ideas and by providing a dynamic forum for
discussion and reflection. When challenging convention and encouraging debate, the interpretation may
sometimes be controversial but should never be dull.
Interpretation is not mere information - it is revelation based upon information. But the information upon
which it is based must be thematically organised, based on rigorous research and specific to each place. The
interpretation should aim to relate the place being displayed to something within the visitor.
Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts. Interpretive techniques should be appropriate to the
place and the various, or multiple, audiences. They should reflect a contemporary perspective and clearly
distinguish themselves from the historic fabric, artefacts or reality. They should be imaginative, reflecting the
best in creativity and ingenuity.
There are, however, many options for interpreting a place. There is no single right way. The philosophical
approach outlined above should be used to explore all the options.”
03.00
BACKGROUND COMPONENTS
01
Prior to the development of policies and strategies to guide the interpretation of Pioneer Park Reserve it is
necessary to understand the background to the place and its significance. It is necessary to consider the
02
available assets and how the place is currently interpreted. Consideration must also be given to both the
current and future audience.
03.01
documentary background
03
background
components
There are a number of formal documents and reports which provide an important source of background
knowledge. They include:
04
• The Brief
• Phillimore Street Precinct Fremantle Conservation Plan (2003) prepared for the City of Fremantle by
Heritage and Conservation Professionals.
• Phillimore Street Precinct Masterplan (2004) prepared for the City of Fremantle by
05
Donaldson + Warn
• Phillimore Street Precinct Integrated Masterplan, Fremantle (2006) prepared for the
City of Fremantle by Donaldson + Warn.
• Phillimore Street Precinct, Fremantle, Western Australia - Archaeological Conservation Plan
06
prepared for the City of Fremantle by Jack McIlroy and Samantha Bolton (August 2008).
• The Excavation of an 1840s cottage complex in Pioneer Park, Fremantle - an addendum to the
Phillimore Street Precinct Archaeological Conservation Plan prepared for the City of Fremantle by
Jack McIIroy and Samantha Bolton (December 2008).
07
• Report on Heritage Significance of the Short Street Precinct, Fremantle, WA by Bob Reece (1986)
In
addition, there are a number of other print resources, the most important of which include:
08
• Appear - managing archaeological remains in towns and cities, from discovery to sustainable
display (2007) prepared for the European Commission
• Sharing Our Stories - Guidelines for Heritage Interpretation (2007) prepared for
National Trust of Australia (WA) and Museums Australia (WA)
09
• Oral History Transcripts and newspaper clippings collected by City of Fremantle Library,
Local History Section
• Building Code of Australia
• Australian Standard on Accessibility
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03.02
personnel background
Many people have provided considerable and valuable input into the understanding of the place and the
development of the interpretation plan. They include (and please forgive any omissions):
• Agnieshka Kiera, City Heritage Architect
• Vanessa Collins, Heritage Planner
• Alexandra Mackenzie, Heritage Project Officer
• Pamela Walker, Horticultural Technical Officer
• Jack McIlroy, Archaeologist
Project team:
• Mike Lefroy, Education Interpretation
• Paul Kloeden, Historian
• Anthony Coupe, Architect
• Esther Chew, Graduate Architect
01
03.03
statement of significance
02
The Phillimore Street Precinct, Fremantle, Western Australia - Archaeological Conservation Plan prepared
for the City of Fremantle by Jack McIlroy and Samantha Bolton assessed the significance of the place,
“from an archaeological viewpoint”, as follows - with the qualification that it represents “an opinion on the
ruins from an Irish archaeologist who has worked on a broad variety of archaeological sites ranging from
03
prehistoric times to the colonial period in Europe, the USA and in Australia. His statement of significance
background
components
is from the viewpoint of that professional and cultural field and attempts to take into account primarily the
significance of the site to the city of Fremantle. His views on cultural significance may be quite different
to
that of someone who works in another field and who comes from a different cultural background.”
04
This project has identified extensive building remains dating from at least 1844 onwards buried under
demolition debris and landfill in Pioneer Park in downtown Fremantle at depths ranging from 30cm to
1.40m. These structural remains include a stone well, a cobblestone yard, walls and floors of houses
05
and an outhouse, massive foundations of a boarding house and an adjacent footpath along with
archaeological deposits associated with a late 1800s saw mill and timber works and the Uglieland fun
park of the 1920s. It is evident that much more remains to be uncovered.
06
The park is also associated with John Forrest, a major figure in the history of Western Australia and its
first premier. Fremantle rate books record him as owning Lot 148 in the park from 1876 to 1903. He is
also listed in the rate books as living on the lot from 1880 until 1892 during which time the rate books
inexplicably describe the lot as vacant.
07
Pioneer Park is an exceptional archaeological reserve. As well as the buildings that can be uncovered
and conserved for public display, it is all but certain to contain buried artefact caches in the form
of former cesspits, rubbish pits and outdoor toilets or dunnies that were filled in with all manner of
08
unwanted household artifacts when they were no longer required. Forgotten for a century and more,
they become inadvertent time capsules. These artifacts were not historically selected; they were not
intended to give an impression of anything to anyone. No one ever expected this material to see the
light of day again. These time capsules are democratic. Analysis of their contents in the 21st century
09
can provide an insight into the lives of the early settlers and later inhabitants of Fremantle in the 1800s,
an insight difficult to obtain from written records alone. John and Jill Citizen, newly established on the
shores of Western Australia and who may themselves have been illiterate nevertheless wrote their own
personal history in the artifacts they discarded and left behind, and in the shadowed remains of the
home in which they once lived.
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The park also has a time marker, invaluable on an archaeological site. All but two lots were demolished
around 1906 to clear the area for the proposed western terminus of the transcontinental railway. The
stratigraphic horizon resulting from the demolition debris and land filling that immediately followed
forms a time marker across the site. Anything found stratigraphically below this layer can be confidently
dated to before 1906.
The Pioneer Park site is a microcosm of early Fremantle from the gentry owned lots along Phillimore
facing the Swan River estuary, to the homes of fishermen a few metres away, to the boarding house
along Short Street, the smoke-belching Lion Mill and the later Uglieland fun park. This is a social mix
unlikely to be seen in any city block today.
The park is located directly opposite the main public transportation hub in Fremantle where bus and
train services come together at the junction of Market and Phillimore streets. It is close to a ferry
terminal and passenger cruise ship terminal.
It is on a main thoroughfare to the busiest part of Fremantle, in itself a tourist draw. Thousands of
residents and visitors use this public transport hub daily, passing the park site as they walk to the main
shopping areas and ‘Cappuccino Strip’ of South Terrace. Pioneer Park is the first public facility they
encounter, and during the course of the excavation immense public interest was evident in the site.
The Pioneer Park site has aesthetic significance for residents and visitors alike related to its potential to
display the building remains of both the early settlers in Fremantle and those who lived there nearly a
century later.
It has historical significance in relation to the early settlement and development of Fremantle and its
association with one of the state’s major historical figures, John Forrest.
It has scientific significance in relation to its ability to answer archaeological research questions based
on an interpretation of its building development and its buried artefact caches.
01
It has social significance related to its potential to become a central downtown focus linking Fremantle’s
past to its present.
02
Many cities across the globe have building ruins on display. Few have them in such a central location.
For the city of Fremantle, the location of Pioneer Park provides an opportunity unparalleled in a major
Australian city. The full extent of these remains should be determined, conserved and displayed in a re-
03
landscaped park.
background
components
For residents and visitors alike, arriving at the transport hub, their first impression of Fremantle and
their last upon leaving should be ‘Old Freo,’ evoked by the ruins of the early settlers’ homes spread
04
across the park.
While the Spare Parts Theatre building is noted on the Heritage Council of Western Australia’s database as
having been considered under their Assessment Program on 11 April 2002, the building does not appear on
05
the State Register of Heritage Places.
06
07
08
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04.00
SITE ANALYSIS
01
04.01
SWOT analysis
02
An analysis of the site and its various elements, including its location, form and infrastructure was conducted.
The results are summarised in the following table:
03
Inventory
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
Location
proximity to railway station and bus
on edge of city centre
greater link with railway development
change to Market Street / Phillimore
stops
Street intersection
04
site analysis
high traffic flow
traffic flow mainly along Market St
greater link with wharf area
increased traffic has potential to
edge
isolate park from north side of
phillimore street
urban context
undesirable use / safety issues
link with ING development
05
open space
Short
/ Pakenham Streets frontages
market / entertainment area
particularly ‘dead’
facility for youth use
06
Surface
lawn is a green space in built
effect of weather on
water restrictions
environs
soft surface for recreational activities
soft surface limits use
07
paved areas stained (paths only)
introduce some hard paved areas for
events
Trees
shade / soft elements in urban
root interference with archaeology,
area under fig tree provides shade
palm tree roots damaging remnants
context
visual incoherence
underground
08
link to Arbor Day and formation of
tree location somewhat ‘random’
increase shade with additional
Pioneer Reserve
planting
Park
useful to activate park
very basic - limited use
to improve design and usability
vandalism
09
furniture
to incorporate / be informed by
interpretation
Lighting
no lighting in reserve - relies on
introduce lighting to enhance
vandalism, lack of security
adjacent street lighting
park environment and illuminate
archaeological remnants
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Inventory
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
High water
interpretive element
limited understanding
integrate into wider park
mark
interpretation
location slightly wrong
adjust / upgrade with park upgrade
Spare Parts
divides park
divides park
better integrate with park and
private property could be sold for
Theatre
interpretation
unsympathetic development or use
activates precinct
activation limited in extent and time
provide facilities to maximise use at
event times
signage on outside - north + east
improve presentation
wall in particular
building appears derelict at non
integrate with better display
event times
separate ownership
lack of coordination in development
sound issues from outside to inside
Electricity
visually intrusive
adapt as interpretive element
vandalism
Sub-station
separate ownership
Concrete
link to opening of Pioneer Reserve
visually and physically intrusive
remove, re-interpret story within
platform
interpretation
Bore
visually and physically intrusive
Archaeology
the fact that it is there, beneath an
fragile
to reveal and use to tell stories
deterioration - physical, chemical,
urban environment
biological
expectation of visitors might not be
interesting presentation &
significant public interest
met
interpretation
mix of remnant activities - domestic,
not spread ‘evenly’ across the park
consider stories as separate
commercial industrial
elements
01
04.02
archaeology
02
The archaeological ruins provide the principal interpretive assets available for conveying the themes and
telling the stories of Pioneer Park Reserve. They are non-renewable and subject to the threat of damage or
destruction from physical, chemical and biological damage. In analysing their potential use, three approaches
are possible.
03
1. Keep all archaeology burried
04
site analysis
The archaeology could be kept buried. This approach has the advantage of low cost and offers possibly the
best long term preservation of the ruins. It does mean, however, that the public is denied visible access to
‘their past’. Interpretation needs to be indirect and referential. It is less likely to activate the reserve as a
05
meaningful recreational space.
06
referential interpretation and
park furniture to activate park
07
08
308
201
210
200
09
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2. Reveal all archaeology
The next approach, at the other end of the spectrum, would be to reveal all the archaeology of the reserve.
This would necessitate enclosing / roofing the entire reserve with internal platforms and walkways constructed
to facilitate movement without damaging the ruins. The centre would be expensive and require large ongoing
costs associated with staffing etc. Visitors would have the maximum access to the ruins but the experience
would need to be controlled and an entrance fee charged. The lack of artefacts found to date and the relative
‘weakness’ of the archaeology (in comparison with the possible expectations based on exposure to Roman
and like ruins / Time Team etc) mitigate against such an approach.
new structure above to weather proof and secure archaeology
308
201
210
200
01
3. Reveal part archaeology
02
The third approach is essentially a compromise between the two extremes outlined above. In this approach
visitors would gain close visible access to the most important and/or interesting piece of archaeology -
Tibbett’s cottage with yard and well - with limited visible glimpses of other ruins throughout the reserve
to hint at the extent of the archaeology. While there are significant conservation requirements involved in
03
this approach and infrastructure costs associated with a structure to protect the main piece of revealed
archaeology and get visitors down to its level, there would be no requirement for ongoing staffing costs etc.
The spreading of ‘glimpses’ onto the ruins below across the reserve has the advantage of visitors feeling a
sense of discovery and encouraging them to use the entire reserve.
04
site analysis
05
06
new structure of varying scale to reveal part of archaeology
reveal most interesting / important archaeology and hint at extent of archaeology
07
08
larger new structure to be
linked with activity base
program to activiate park
09
smaller structures to create
visual interest
tibbett’s cottage
ruins
308
201
210
200
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04.03
aboriginal interpretation
While the archaeology of Pioneer Park Reserve provides the visible and tangible basis for telling stories since
the earliest time of European settlement, these stories need to be placed within the context of the ownership
and use of the place by Aboriginal people.
Aboriginal interpretation must be done by, or in consultation with the appropriate community.
04.04
other locales
Pioneer Park Reserve needs to be considered not just in isolation but within a wider context.
It is one of a number of parks within the City of Fremantle. While all offer some ‘respite’ from their hard urban
surrounds, each park is different serving a slightly different role to a different audience. Pioneer Park Reserve
is on the edge of the city proper, in a highly visible location to visitors arriving by car, bus and train. It has
the capacity to be a significant entry point / statement to the city.
The re-location of the Visitor Information Centre to the railway station will increase the opportunity for visitors
to be apprised of the reserve’s attractions before they simply pass it while heading into the city heart.
The archaeological work at Peel Town should be monitored to assess any opportunities for cross-promotion
or other relationship which could increase the visibility of and visitation to Pioneer Park Reserve.
Pioneer Park Reserve is a rare, if not unique example of a publicly accessible urban archaeological site within
Australia. There are a number of such sites throughout the world. Pioneer Park reserve needs to be seen
within this context, although it is necessary to be aware of the relative strength of the archaeology here in
comparison with, for example, the Roman ruins of Barcelona.
05.00
AUDIENCE PROFILE
01
05.01
general
02
Pioneer Park Reserve is an open space with no restriction on access. It is located directly opposite the railway
station and bus terminal. It is generally passed (along Market Street) by both locals and tourists making their
way from the station to the centre of Fremantle. A smaller number pass through the reserve heading to the
south-west. The reserve is located on Pillimore Street, a major vehicular traffic route. The reserve is thus
03
highly visible to people entering Fremantle by car, bus and train.
Actual use of the reserve, however, is currently limited. This is probably a reflection of the reserve’s location
on the ‘edge’ of the city and its lack of infrastructure to activate it. Some use the few available seating and
04
picnic facilities. Others use the green lawn and shade from trees to provide a respite from the surrounding
built up area. But the number of users is not large. At night the reserve is not seen as an attractive place for
general visitors. The major night users are the homeless and those attending the mobile medical centre.
05
audience
profile
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07
08
09
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05.02
target audience
The revealing and interpretation of the archaeology below the surface of Pioneer Park Reserve offers the
opportunity to activate the space and substantially increase and change the visitor profile.
The target audience includes both Fremantle locals as well as tourists, from the wider Perth as well as
interstate and overseas. The reserve is already visible to many of these. The challenge is to encourage them
to enter and actually use or interact with the reserve, not just pass it.
While the archaeology will provide an attraction in itself to many people, the method of its interpretation and
presentation, particularly its relationship with the wider context of the reserve and beyond, can entice those
who may have no specific interest to still utilize the park.
It is necessary to remember that the audience for heritage places is changing. In line with general demographic
changes, it is more sophisticated and better educated than in previous decades. Retirees, who comprise a
large section of the heritage audience, are younger and have greater experience of alternative entertainment
and cultural attractions both locally and around the world.
Heritage places generally fail to attract the younger audience who see their presentation as “boring” and “old
fashioned”, considerably less vital than alternative attractions.
One of the aims of the broader development strategy for Pioneer Park reserve is to develop a place
/
experience that will appeal to this changing and hopefully expanded broader audience. The decision to
develop contemporary interpretive strategies as well as useful and attractive recreational spaces is partly
rooted in this aim.
01
05.03
multiple attractions
02
Multiple attractions offering diverse experiences are the key to accessing multiple audiences. The ‘division’
of the reserve into a green space to the north, an active recreational space to the west, and an archaeological
space to the east offers factors which will each appeal to a different audience group. From a purely interpretive
perspective, each visitor to the green or to the recreational space is a potential visitor to the archaeological
03
interpretation. From a more general perspective, any user to one of the attractions helps activate the entire
reserve.
05.04
repeat visitations
04
The use of the event space to the west offers the opportunity to hold regular or one-off events. Each such
event has the potential to bring a new or repeat visitor to the site
- to activate the reserve and potentially
experience the archaeological interpretation.
05
audience
profile
The design of the event / gathering space as a place attractive to the young will also result in a continuing
use which may flow through to other parts of the reserve.
06
07
08
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05.05
school and education groups
School groups are often seen as an important visitor group to heritage sites, not just in terms of visitor numbers
but because of the importance of assisting the next generation to understand and value our cultural heritage.
Pioneer Park Reserve offers a number of attractions to such groups. As a free access site it is attractive as a
low cost excursion. It will offer the only archaeological attraction available in Western Australia. The stories
associated with the place, and the visible archaeology, are central to the history of Western Australia.
The following outlines the likely areas within the WA Curriculum that could engage with the proposed
development. A number of these should be considered as integrated with potential visits to ‘Spare Parts’ and
include:
Society and Environment - Place and Space; Time, Continuity and Change; and Investigation, Communication
and Participation.
Science - Investigating Scientifically (process of the archaeological dig and investigation of the site)
English - all strands in particular the possible linking with Spare Parts Puppet Theatre
The Arts - all strands in particular the possible linking with Spare Parts Puppet Theatre
Technology and Enterprise - Technology Process (archaeology) and Materials (use on the original site and in
the modern interpretation of the site).
In addition, a new national history curriculum is due out soon and will support some local history components.
An important overall theme in relation to education opportunities is Valuing Heritage - as the area is exposed
and interpreted the links to the past become clearer offering first hand experience of historical research both
documentary and on-site.
A key education component will be web-based programmes and activities as well as suggested school based
activities such as simulating an archaeological dig and building a model of the site. Web based activities
would need to be written with curriculum links and could include photographic and video images of the dig,
primary source material, reports, historical accounts, historic visual materials etc. They could also provide
information to a range of ‘visitors,’ not just limited to a school-based audience. Web based activities could
be coordinated by the Council utilising the rich resources of the available documentation and the resources
of the Local History section of Fremantle Library
Preliminary discussions with local schools indicate keen interest in using and accessing the site as proposed,
as part of their education programmes.
06.00
THEMES & STORIES
01
While themes and stories co-exist in all heritage interpretation, they are not the same thing.
02
“A theme is the main point or message the communicator is trying to convey about a topic. It is the answer
to “so what” or “big deal”. It is the moral to the story.” (Sam Ham and Betty Weiler Developing Interpretive
Themes 2003)
03
A theme identifies the key message in the interpretation. It should be simple and clear, providing a link
between stories or pieces of information.
06.01
themes
04
The following key themes to be communicated to the visitor in the interpretation of Pioneer Park Reserve
arise directly from the statements of significance and the investigation of the physical evidence of the place.
They are not listed in any particular order of importance.
05
1.
Aboriginal people occupied the area now known as Fremantle prior to European settlement and
have continued to have a presence there to this day.
06
themes &
2.
All towns and cities, including Fremantle, are the theatres of human activity which constantly build,
stories
destroy and rebuild new urban landscapes.1
3.
Archaeological remains represent a tangible yet fragile witness to this continually changing
07
collective life.2
4.
In illustrating a continuity with the past, archaeological sites provide a sense of identity and
reinforce bonds of solidarity in the present.
08
5.
Archaeological heritage is a non-renewable asset and its preservation is in a continuous state of
balance with the desire for public access and contemporary urban growth.
09
6.
Archaeological heritage is esteemed for its associative/symbolic, informational/scientific, aesthetic
and economic values.
1
European Commission ‘The Appear Method - a practical guide for the management of enhancement projects on urban archaeological sites’ 2006
2
ibid
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06.02
stories
There are numerous stories associated with the place now known as Pioneer Park Reserve. They can be
divided spatially into those associated with the entire location and those associated with specific parts of the
reserve. They can also be divided temporally into those associated with the pre-European period, the early
European settlement period, later development, and the present.
Stories associated with the entire reserve include:
1.
Aboriginal occupation and use
2.
First European settlement
3.
Survey and land division
4.
Land reclamation
5.
The place’s relationship with transport - water based, road, rail
(including the clearing of the site c1905)
6.
Recreation - including Uglieland and Pioneer Reserve
Stories associated with specific parts of the reserve include those related to individual owners and occupiers,
including:
1.
Bobins and Willis - fishing, boarding house
2.
John Forrest
3.
Tibbet - residential, boarding
4.
Lion Timber Yard and Steam Saw Mill
5.
Woolams - residence/carpenter
6.
Henry Berry’s - office and wharehouse
7.
State shops - state butchery and fish shop, bank
8.
Payne & Humble / Mallock Bros - customs and forwarding agents
9.
Theakston - boarding house
10.
Uglieland
11.
Spare Parts Theatre
Stories associated with the past are essentially those mentioned above but considered from a different
perspective. As such they include such stories as:
1.
Building techniques through time
2.
Changing urban patterns - residential / industrial / commercial / recreational
Stories associated with the present include:
1.
The story of the archaeology - the methodology of, including the preservation of remains - its role
in connecting the present to the past thus reinforcing a sense of identity - its place within the
context of Australian and world archaeology
2.
Recreation
07.00
INTERPRETATION POLICIES
01
The following interpretation policies articulate the core principles and procedures which should be followed
when interpreting Pioneer Park Reserve.
02
Policies
03
The primary purpose of interpreting the place is to transmit to the public the heritage significance and values
A
of the place.
All interpretation should be consistent with the conservation policy as set out in the Archaeological Conservation
04
B
Plan and respect the integrity of all archaeological fabric.
The interpretation should acknowledge the prior occupation and “ownership” of the place by Aboriginal people
C
and reflect the strength of their culture prior to European settlement and today.
D
Interpretation should present alternative/layered perspectives of the site, both temporal and spatial.
05
Visitors should be able to visually access one major archaeological excavation (Tibbett’s Cottage, yard and
E
well) from its original ground level.
Visitors should ‘discover’ glimpses of other archaeological remains throughout the reserve from contemporary
06
F
ground level.
G
Interpretation should enhance rather than diminish the recreational use and appearance of the reserve.
07
H
Interpretation should be embedded into park elements such as surfaces, furniture etc.
interpretation
policies
Interpretation should enhance the reserve’s historical position ‘on the edge’ - of the river, the town, transport
I
etc - by creating an entrance to Fremantle, its past and its contemporary form.
08
J
Future archaeological excavations should be seen as part of the ongoing interpretation of the place.
K
Advertising should not occur in the reserve unless part of the interpretation.
09
L
Interpretation should challenge visitors to rethink what they might normally take for granted.
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08.00
INTERPRETATION STRATEGIES
01
08.01
vision for pioneer park reserve
02
Pioneer Park should become one of Fremantle’s ‘must see’ attractions. It should become a destination that
encourages visitors to spend time rather than a mere transitional space.
As a rare example of an urban archaeological site open to the public, Pioneer Park Reserve provides a
03
unique and exciting entrance to the City of Fremantle. In
[re]-establishing the relationship between the
city’s European origins and its contemporary urban environment, the reserve offers a dialogic space for the
contemplation of and conversation between past present and future.
04
It should remain a ‘green’ space that supports a range of activities and audiences.
05
06
07
08
interpretation
strategies
09
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08.02
strategies overview
As an overall interpretive strategy, the project has developed a cohesive design for the entire park. The
design has been based on particular interpretive imperatives that have driven the form, layout and use of the
space. Details are included in the design drawings in Appendix A
The following are the major interpretive strategies.
08.02.01 reveal part archaeology
The approach adopted is to reveal part of the archaeology using new structures of varying scales. The
strategy taken is supported by recomendations in conservation plan.
new structure of varying scale to reveal part of archaeology
reveal most interesting / important archaeology and hint at extent of archaeology
larger new structure to be
linked with activity base
program to activiate park
smaller structures to create
visual interest
tibbett’s cottage
ruins
308
201
210
200
01
08.02.02 zoning
02
The park is divided conceptually into 3 sections - a green space to the north, an active recreational / event
space to the west, and an archaeological space to the east.
03
04
05
06
07
link
view of green space and timber seating platform
08
interpretation
strategies
09
view of link area and green space
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08.02.03 visual access to main archaeological space
Built into the park development is visual access to Tibbets cottage site as the major interpretive element
and visitor attraction. A level of physical access is also incorporated - visitors are encouraged and able to
experience the site at the former (1844) ground level.
The eastern archaeological area also incorporates a kiosk
/ cafe together with an interpretive
‘plaza’
-
permanent detailed interpretation about the site. The kiosk / cafe acts as an interpretive device to encourage
people to stay longer and develop a greater understanding of the site’s history. Both the kiosk / cafe and
interpretive platfrom also encourage use by patrons of the Puppet Theatre.
interpretive plaza
view of access ramp from market street towards
Tibbets Cottage viewing platform
200
view of access ramp from market street towards
Tibbets Cottage viewing platform and cafe beyond
view of access interpretive plaza
01
Perspective of viewing platform, Tibbets Cottage remnants.
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
interpretation
strategies
09
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08.02.04 viewports to other smaller excavations + interpretive landscapes
A series of ‘viewing ports’ to other smaller excavation areas are also included and spread over the site. These
allow an understanding of the extent of the archaeology, and former urban density. They provide a sense of
discovery by allowing glimpses of underground elements.
Interpretive landscape are mounds of earth / grass formed in smaller scale than that of Tibetts Cottage. They
suggest a location where archaeological ruins are found, but are not revealed.
interpretive landscapes
203
204
200
perspective of viewports to trench
210
308
210
120
201
140
viewports
interpretive landscapes
viewports
01
08.02.05 recreational space / event space
02
The western recreational
/ event space provides a
‘flat’ platform for a range of community events and
incorporates casual recreational activity infrastructure
- such as a basketball ring
+ backboard (not a
formalised playing court as such).
03
08.02.06 steps and timber seating platform
The east and west sections are connected by a continuous stepped platform that provides seating and a
range of views, particularly towards the northen green space and towards the quay.
04
05
views
views
06
views
07
view of ‘flat’ platfrom in recreational space
08
interpretation
strategies
09
view of recreational area with sculptural lighting and
small scale sporting facility
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08.02.07 other interpretive elements
The timber seating platform is itself an interpretive element. The decision to use timber as a landscape
surface element refers to the former use of the site as a saw mill. Although the use of timber in such a format
is abstract, the proposal incorporates routed text within the decking that gives the visitor further clues to that
former use.
Sculptural lighting elements help to define the place. As tall sculptural elements they provide a readily
recognisable form that helps to signify the park. As elements that provide a lighting function they support
activation of the site and increase safety and night usage opportunities. They also incorporate small amounts
of interpretive information as well as providing service points for events
(electrical outlets and public
address).
timber seating platform and sculptural lighting
The existing electrical substation facing Short Street is intended to be conserved and its presentation
elements
upgraded via lighting and general maintenance. A screen wrapping the sides facing the park is proposed. It
will incorporate interpretation as well as contributing to the presentation of the element.
Free wi-fi hotspots are proposed for the park to encourage longer stays and understanding of the place as a
destination. Accessing the web from the park via a personal device such as a laptop computer would be via
a dedicated browser page containing information about the park itself.
The Aboriginal reconciliation mural on the north wall of the Spare Parts building is intended to be conserved
and its presentation upgraded. A re-dedication ceremony could form part of the aboriginal interpretation
programme.
Screen wrapping around electrical substation
01
08.02.08 off-site interpretation
02
A web presence is an important interpretive tool that can deliver a greater range of information than any
on-site interpretation. Links through wi-fi can link the place with a web-site but the two aspects provide
different types of experiences. A web-site should be developed using information about the archaeological
programmes that have occurred, the site’s history, and genealogical information amongst others. It could be
03
part of the City’s website or separate. It would form a key resource for schools and similar groups and will
encourage site visitation.
Fremantle walk trail brochures should be modified to incorporate the site and mark it as a destination.
04
05
06
07
08
interpretation
strategies
09
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08.03
interpretation strategies table
Based on the interpretation policies and in direct response to the site, the following strategies have been adopted.
Interpretation Strategy
Location
Details
Storyline/Interpretive Objective
‘Lifted’ ground surface, ramps, steps and glazed enclosed
structure.
Permanent viewing to Tibbet’s
Trench Nº 200
Possible light and sound interpretation.
Tibbet
Cottage remnants
Eastern section
Graphic panels, lighting.
Two or three viewports raised above ground. Lighting,
Permanent viewing to remnants
Trench Nº 210
Woolams - residence / carpenter
single graphic panel to each.
Two or three viewports raised above ground. Lighting,
Trench Nº 308
Residents
single graphic panel to each.
Two or three viewports raised above ground. Lighting,
Lion Timber Yard and
Trench Nº 120
single graphic panel to each.
Steam Saw Mill
Raised ground surface over trench.
Trench Nº 203
Willis - fishing
North eastern section
Graphic panels
Interpretative landscape mound
(Phillimore Street)
Raised ground surface over trench.
Trench Nº 204
Uglieland
North eastern section
Graphic panels
Raised ground surface over trench.
Interpretative landscape mound
Trench Nº 140
State Shops -
(Market Street)
Eastern section
butchery and fish shop, bank
Graphic panels
01
Interpretation Strategy
Location
Details
Storyline/Interpretive Objective
02
Improved views of surrounding
Flat raised paved area with views to most of park.
context - urban development.
Interpretation Plaza
Eastern Section
Didactic graphic panels.
All storylines
03
Park name signage to northern face of retaining/balustrade wall
Park definition/identity
Revised entry forecourt and eastern wall of Spare Parts building.
Integration with Spare Parts.
Incorporating puppet and video displays.
Short Street/Eastern Section
04
Spare Parts Forecourt
New timber decking and steps and concrete ramp
Access
Trench Nº 201
Viewing structure around remnants
Theakston
05
Semi- sheltered gathering space for
Fig Tree - deck
Short Street/Eastern Section
New timber deck built over exposed roots of tree.
groups.
Eastern side of ‘Spare
New food and beverage facility. Small building with outdoor and
Increase ‘holding power’ of place.
Kiosk/Café
Parts’
enclosed eating area. Views of archaeology.
Add value to visitor experience.
06
Activation of park, repeat visitation
Hard surface area suitable for supporting a range of events such
Western section
through events. Increase ‘holding
as markets as per masterplan. Also low-key recretational use.
power’ of place.
07
Recreation/event space
New hard paved area connecting east and west sections of the
Improved connectivity of site
park.
specific stories and park usability.
North of Spare Parts
building
Aboriginal occupation and use of
Representation of reconciliation mural, new lighting.
site.
08
Interpretation of former use - timber
interpretation
Timber seating and deck element separating hard and soft
Timber seating/platform
Western section
saw mill. Increased ‘holding power’
strategies
landscaped areas. Text routed into decking.
of site.
Sculptural lighting elements incorporating service points and some
Lighting towers
All of site
Various stories. Site activation.
09
interpretive text.
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09.00
IMPLEMENTATION
01
09.01
general
02
The strategies proposed in this plan form part of a single overall design for the park. Although it may be
possible to implement the proposal in stages, it is intended that the overall interpretation is distributed across
the site, the entire story of the place being revealed through a series of elements and different media.
03
It has also been one of the underlying aims of this project, to provide integrated interpretation - strategies
that are integral to the re-design of the park by using the interpretive imperatives to define the way the park
is redeveloped. Although there are a number of didactic graphic panels, the key interpretive aim is to provoke
interest by revealing part of the below-ground remnants and encouraging the viewer to imagine the rest.
04
As a plan the proposal requires further design development and investigation. It gives a definitive intent
to the way in which the park should be redeveloped to retain some of the interest generated by the initial
excavations, but details of construction systems, layouts and finishes will need to be further refined.
05
09.02
consultation
Consultation with a number of key personnel and stakeholders occurred throughout the preparation of this
06
interpretation plan. This was done both on an individual level and through meetings with City staff as well as
public feedback through the City’s website. A number of key stakeholders were also notified directly.
From the consultation period, responses were collated by the City and passed on to the design team. These
07
were then assessed against the aims and objectives of the project and where appropriate, the plan adjusted.
Most notably there were comments relating to future archaeological work, accessibility, shade and tree
planting, tree retention and playground/recreational activities.
08
Some further consultation with particular stakeholders will be required through the development process.
The noted themes and storylines include aboriginal occupation of the site prior to European settlement and
design proposals have incorporated opportunities for the presentation of information relating to aboriginal
people and their use of the site. The specific details of this interpretation have yet to be developed and will
09
implementation
need to be done in consultation with relevant aboriginal people.
The City has an Aboriginal liaison officer and a City-wide project in relation to consultation is currently being
developed, however a definitive consultation plan identifying the appropriate elders and likely costs will need
to be developed for this project.
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09.03
masterplan
This proposal has been developed in the context of the masterplan for the area. Design elements are
cognizant of the proposals within the masterplan including future changes to pedestrian and vehicular routes
and suggested uses.
It is important that the final endorsed version of this plan be linked to any ongoing masterplanning work to
ensure coordination and facilitation of opportunities.
01
09.04
trees and landscaping
02
Under this proposal a number of new trees are to be planted - to provide shade and define space, particularly
in the western section. Some existing trees are to be removed. This includes all palm trees and all of the
pepper trees. The Pine trees are to be retained as is the Moreton Bay Fig. A timber platform is to be built
over the exposed roots of the Fig tree to be used as an impromptu group gathering space that uses the broad
03
shelter provided by the tree’s canopy.
As the pepper trees are quite old and relate to past community commemoration, further consultation may be
required on their removal.
04
The majority of the surface of the Park is grassed. The western section contains a possible hard surface area
that supports events such as markets and concerts as well as impromptu recreation. A smaller area of timber
decking is included.
05
All will require maintenance to varying degrees, the timber decking most.
06
07
all existing trees
08
09
implementation
retained tress and new trees to provide shading
tress to be retained
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09.05
budget
A preliminary budget estimate is included in Appendix B. The opportunity to stage the works is possible but
it will be necessary to complete a substantial section of the works to make it appear ‘finished.’ The diagram
below indicates a possible three-stage approach as follows:
Stage 1 - develop the eastern end of the park including the major archaeological presentation, ramps,
eastern footpath, and park entry elements.
Stage 2 - develop the western end of the park including the hard paved events space and timber seating.
Stage 3 - develop the eastern side of the ‘Spare Parts’ building including the proposed new eastern wall,
arrival plaza, new ramp, and kiosk.
The development of Stage 3 is complicated by the interface with a State Government owned (rather than
City owned) building and operating venue. It also incorporates a proposed Kiosk facility that is likely to
be a leased business. Both of these aspects will require further negotiation and agreement prior to design
resolution.
As designed, the proposal increases the likely running costs of the place. General maintenance and cleaning
costs as well as for electric lighting and plant for environmental management of the archaeological remnants
are the main areas of running costs.
stage
2
stage
1
stage
3
staging diagram
01
09.06
visitor management
02
The proposal is intended to provide a self-guided visitor experience although it does not preclude guided
tours. The proposal provides gathering spaces and viewing points and encloses all archaeological remnants
providing constant protection.
03
As a result of providing access to the archaeological remnants the proposal creates an undulating surface
and incorporates level changes and ramps. Balustrades and handrails are provided to code requirements.
09.07
spare parts puppet theatre
04
Because of their status as the only site occupier, the team met with representatives of Spare Parts Puppet
Theatre in order to understand their operations, usage patterns, visitation and interaction with the surrounding
site.
05
Similarly, as the plan incorporates significant intervention into the eastern side of the ‘Spare Parts’ building,
further consultation with the occupier will be required. The Plan recognizes the opportunities that the theatre
brings in activating the site at particular times, but aims to increase that activity by better presentation of the
06
building and contents outside of performance times.
09.08
conservation
07
Some conservation and stabilization of the exposed remnants will be required when they are exposed. Such
work should be minimal. It should be limited to essential works such as the careful removal of tree roots and
securing of loose masonry.
08
Ongoing atmospheric control will likely be required to maintain the remnants and reduce the risk of damage
from moisture-borne salts. The proposal incorporates mechanical plant to assist in the management of the
atmospheric conditions within the display space.
09
implementation
Periodic maintenance and monitoring will be required.
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09.09
BCD + DDA
Accessibility in relation to Australian Standards (1428) has been a guiding factor in the layout of the place.
One of the key interpretive imperatives is the experience of the original ground level, at about 1500mm below
the current ground level. This has necessitated the incorporation of ramped access ways and these have
been designed at a fall of 1in 20, reducing the need for rails.
All levels have ramped access and signage has been designed to suit viewing from either a standing or
sitting position. Audio interpretation can be built-in to the interpretation plaza elements and in the Tibbetts
Cottage display.
Ongoing atmospheric control will likely be required to maintain the remnants and reduce the risk of damage
from moisture-borne salts. The proposal incorporates mechanical plant to assist in the management of the
atmospheric conditions within the display space.
Periodic maintenance and monitoring will be required.
01
09.10
evaluation
02
Evaluation of the visitor experience is important for the future planning, conservation, and development of
the place. Because of the open public nature of the site some types of evaluation are not practical. Specific
visitor numbers will be impossible to record, but other techniques may be able to provide effective feedback.
In this instance, the aim of evaluation would be;
03
To understand the audience and visitor profile - who are they, where do they come from and why they
have visited the place.
To understand the way in which visitors interact with the place and interpretation (or lack of).
04
To understand where the gaps are - the storylines, experiences etc.
Evaluation techniques
05
Evaluation can be undertaken in a number of ways.
Where possible, visitor numbers should be recorded. Bookings relating to guided tours and education
groups could be recorded although casual visits would need to be estimated through on-site observations.
06
Survey / questionnaires - standard evaluation forms that record visitor information such as origin,
age, how they knew about the place, how many times they’ve visited, etc. could be available on site either
through the proposed kiosk or via guides. It is important that the guides encourage visitors to fill out this
07
form.
Additional, more qualitative evaluation could be undertaken through conducting detailed interviews
with visitors. The frequency and number of interviews needs to be determined in relation to the aims and
08
objectives of the evaluation programme.
09
implementation
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09.11
further research and archaeology
The plan encourages further research and further investigation. It also recommends that an archaeologist be
employed during construction to ensure any excavation is monitored and any recording undertaken.
Designs for interventions into the park have been developed such that the footings and supporting structures
do not interfere with the below-ground remnants based on information contained within the conservation plan
and other reports. More accurate surveys will be required during design development to ensure new work
does not interfere with the existing remnants.
09.12
marketing
As a key element in the cultural fabric of Fremantle the park should be marketed as a destination. It can be
added to existing walking trails and related brochures for casual visitors, but could also be marketed as part
of education packages and guided tours for probus groups.
09.13
kiosk
/ cafe
The proposal incorporates a small kiosk/café. As part of the overall vision that the park becomes a destination
it is an element that adds value to the visitor experience and helps to encourage people to stay longer. The
combination of the kiosk, the archaeology and the location should combine to create a cohesive experience
that is more than the sum of its parts.
It is likely that any such facility be leased as a commercial enterprise outside of the City’s administration.
The commercial viability of this has not been tested as part of this report, and further negotiation between
the City and potential operators may help refine the proposal.
It is important that the City retain a high level of control over the scale and nature of the operation; the
visitor experience will be significantly affected by the operation and presentation of the food, drinks and
service. Such a facility may also add value to Spare Parts’ programme by offering parents somewhere to
stay while children are watching a performance. Further discussions with Spare Parts will be required in the
development of this as extraneous noise is a potential problem for their operations.
01
09.14
priorities
+ programming
02
The proposal for the redevelopment of Pioneer Park has been envisaged as a cohesive and unified design. As
a space the park currently has two or three different zones with different characteristics. The design has been
developed to incorporate some unity to these different spaces, although the subtle differences will remain.
03
Although it has been designed as a whole, it may be possible if funding requires, to develop the place in
three different stages as specified above. The priority would be to develop the eastern section first (stage
1), followed by the western section (stage 2), and then the eastern side of the Spare Parts building (stage
3). However, within the context of the emerging masterplan and other budgetry constraints that priority may
04
need to be reviewed.
05
06
07
stage
2
stage
1
08
09
implementation
stage
3
staging diagram
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